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Ivanov G. A., Yermokhin M. V., Tabachishin V. ., Tabachishin V. G. Reproductive ecology of Anuran Amphibians: Effects of internal and external factors. Current Studies in Herpetology, 2023, vol. 23, iss. 1, pp. 3-26. DOI:

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Reproductive ecology of Anuran Amphibians: Effects of internal and external factors


This research paper examines the influence of internal factors (female body weight, body condition) and external ecological factors on the reproductive parameters of females, as well as on the reproductive ecology of adult individuals of anuran amphibians. Among the most significant reproductive characteristics of females are the number of eggs in a clutch, the proportion of reproductive products to female body weight (contribution to reproduction), and the average weight of eggs. The body weight of the female and the ecological (meteorological) conditions of her activity during the year preceding spawning, as well as the hibernation conditions, have the greatest impact on the quantitative expression of these parameters. The proportion of reproductive products to female body weight in anuran amphibians usually ranges from 13 to 30%. Climate warming can directly affect the reproductive parameters of females, the survival of metamorphs, and the phenology of the spawning period.


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