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Bobretsov A. V., Bykhovets N. M., Kochanov S. K., Petrov A. N. Distribution and morphometric features of the common toad Bufo bufo L. (Bufonidae, Amphibia) in the North-East of the European part of Russia. Current Studies in Herpetology, 2022, vol. 22, iss. 1, pp. 3-16. DOI:

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Distribution and morphometric features of the common toad Bufo bufo L. (Bufonidae, Amphibia) in the North-East of the European part of Russia


The distribution and morphometric features of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in the North-East of European Russia are discussed. The northern boundary of the species' range in the region has a complex configuration. In the west and central part of the region, the toad is found up to latitude 65º42'N and 63º01'N, respectively, the eastern border of its habitat moves northwards up to 64º13' and then drops to the south along the Ural Mountain Ridge. The formation of the modern range of the species in the region was influenced by an extensive network of watercourses and global climate changes. For the last 70 years, toads have distributed along the Pechora River at a distance of more than 600 km. The morphometric variability of the common toad was estimated by 13 linear criteria and 7 indices on the example of four localities in the Komi Republic (Pechora, Beloye Lake, Lokchim Lake, and Sysola Lake). Significant sexual differences were found by most criteria: their values in females are higher than in males. Toads of both sexes inhabiting the eastern and northern localities (Pechora, Lake Beloye) are smaller in size than animals from the southwestern parts of the region (Lokchim Lake, Sysola Lake). Discriminant analysis showed that maximal differences between samples were registered on the body length L., femur length F., tibia length T., head length L.c., and head latitude Lt.c.


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