Cite this article as:

Kidov A. A., Nemyko E. A. Captive Breeding of the Alpine Newt, Ichthyosaura alpestris (Laurenti, 1768) (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamndridae) under Hormonal Stimulation. Current Studies in Herpetology, 2019, vol. 19, iss. , pp. 31-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/1814-6090-2019-19-1-2-31-39


Heading: 
UDC: 
591.16:597.8

Captive Breeding of the Alpine Newt, Ichthyosaura alpestris (Laurenti, 1768) (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamndridae) under Hormonal Stimulation

Abstract

The Alpine newt, Ichthyosaura alpestris, is widely distributed in Central Europe. This species is common for most part of its habitat. I. alpestris is rare in Ukraine, Hungary, Bulgaria, Austria and Denmark. In the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg the Alpine newt is endangered. A large number of publications on the keeping and breeding of this species in captivity is known. This allows the Alpine newt to be saved in artificial conditions, as well as to carry out projects on its reintroduction. Current methods of the amphibian’s reproduction intensification are becoming more and more widespread in our zooculture. Hormonal stimulation of reproductive behavior, fertilization and oviposition is one of such methods. A synthetic analogue of the gonadotropic hypothalamic neurohormone luleberin (surfagon) is most commonly used in Russia. Injections of this hormonal drug have allowed obtaining offspring from many amphibian species. This paper presents the results of captive breeding of the Alpine newt using surfagon. Newts were captured in the Ivano-Frankovsk region of the Ukraine. Subsequently, they were kept in pairs in plastic water-filled containers. The animals were fed with larval chironomids (bloodworms). Live Java moss, Vesicularia dubyana, was placed into the containers with the newts. Hormonal stimulation of reproduction was performed after 10 months of the animals keeping. Surfagon solution (12.5 mg of the active ingredient per newt) was injected into the abdominal cavity once in early February. The females began to lay off eggs 1–3 days after the injection. Egg laying cases were observed at water temperatures be-tween 5.0 and 22.5°C. The total period of oviposition (from the first egg found to the last one) was 44–92 days. In total, the females laid 141 to 268 eggs during this period. All five females laid eggs in February and March, four ones did in April, and only three ones did in May. The egg length was 3.0–4.5 mm and the width was 2.0–3.9 mm. Pre-larvae emerged from the eggs in 8–13 days. The total length of a pre-larva was 7.8–11.4 mm. The larvae were fed with live nauplius of artemia, Artemia salina, and with blood-worms later. Young newts started to come on land in 88–96 days. Some larvae underwent no metamorphosis even after 10 months of their development. The total body length (with tail) of the young newts was 27.3–43.2 mm, and their weight was 0.13–0.45 g. The authors note that the use of one surfagon injection allowed getting eggs from Alpine newts just since early February, i.e. significantly earlier than the natural reproduction term. Subsequently, viable young newts were grown from these eggs. This allows us to recommend the use of hormonal stimulation to accelerate reproduction of the Alpine newt in artificial conditions.

References

Ananjeva N. B, Borkin L. J., Darevsky I. S., Orlov N. L. Amphibians and Reptiles. Encyclopedia of nature of Russia. Moscow, ABF Publ., 1998. 576 p. (in Russian).
Goncharov B. F., Serbinova I. A., Uteshev V. K., Shubravy O. I. Development of Methods of Hormonal Stimulation of Processes of Reproduction at Amphibians. In: Problems of Domestication at Amphibians. Moscow, 1989, pp. 197–201 (in Russian).
Kidov A. A., Serbinova I. A. Experience of Cultivation of the Caucasian Toad, Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, [1814]) (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) in Laboratory Conditions. In: Materialy Vserossiiskoi konferentsii “Aktual'nye problemy ekologii i sokhraneniia bioraznoo-braziia” [Proc. of the All-Russ. Conf. “Present Problems of Ecology and Conservation of Biodiversity”]. Vladikavkaz, Izdatel'stvo Severo-Oseteniskogo IGSI im. V. I. Abaeva, 2008, pp. 49–53 (in Russian).
Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Afrin K. A. The first results of captive breeding and reintroduction of the Karelin’s newt, Triturus karelinii Strauch, 1870 from Talysh population. Vestnik of Buryat State University, 2015 a, no. 4, pp. 81–89 (in Russian).
Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Blinova S. A., Afrin K. A., Kovrina E. G., Baksheyeva A. A. Reproduction of the Iranian long-legged frog (Rana macrocnemis pseudodalmatina Eiselt et Schmidtler, 1971) in laboratory conditions. Current Studies in Herpetology, 2015 b, vol. 15, iss. 3–4, pp. 109–113 (in Russian).
Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Litvinchuk S. N., Blinova S. A., Afrin K. A., Kovrina E. G. The first case of reproduction of the Lataste's toad, Bufotes latastii (Boulenger, 1882) in laboratory conditions. Current Studies in Herpetology, 2016, vol. 16, iss. 1–2, pp. 20–26 (in Russian).
Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Blinova S. A., Afrin K. A. Laboratory reproduction of the Cuban toad (Peltophryne empusa Cope, 1862). Current Studies in Herpetology, 2017, vol. 17, iss. 1–2, pp. 36–43 (in Russian).
Kuzmin S. L. Amphibians of Former USSR. Moscow, KMK Scientific Press, 2012. 370 p. (in Russian).
Litvinchuk S. N., Borkin L. J. Evolution, Systematics and Distribution of Crested Newts (Triturus cristatus complex) in Russia and Adjacent Countries. Saint Petersburg, Evropeyskiy dom Publ., 2009. 592 p. (in Russian).
Matushkina K. A., Kidov A. A., Livinchuk S. N. The first results of captive breeding of the Batura toad, Bufotes baturae Stoeck, Schmid, Steinlein et Grosse, 1999. Bulletin of Tambov University, Ser. of Natural and Technical Sciences, 2017, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 955–959 (in Russian).
Pisanets E. M. Amphibians of Ukraine (guide book of amphibians of Ukraine and adjacent territories). Kiev, Zoomuzey NNPM NAN Ukrainy Publ., 2007. 312 p. (in Russian).
Pisanets E. M., Litvinchuk S. N., Kurtyak F. F., Radchenko V. I. The amphibians of Ukrainian Red Book (Handbook – cadastre). Kiev, Zoomuzey NNPM NAN Ukrainy Publ., 2005. 230 p. (in Russian).
Serbinova I. A. Reintroduction as a method of wild amphibian conservation. Science Research in Zoological Parks, 2007, iss. 22, pp. 113–117 (in Russian).
Serbinova I. A., Tuniyev B. S. Keeping, captive breeding and reintroduction of northern banded newt (Triturus vittatus). Proc. of the 1st All-USSR Conf. for Problems of Zooculture. Moscow, 1986, pt. 2, pp. 147–150 (in Russian).
Serbinova I. A., Tuniyev B. S., Uteshev V. K., Shubravy O. I., Goncharov B. F. Creation of the population of northern banded newt (Triturus vittatus ophryticus) in artificial conditions. In: Zooculture of Amphibians. Moscow, Institut evolyucionnoy morfologii i ekologii zhivotnyh AN SSSR Publ., 1990 a, pp. 75–81 (in Russian).
Serbinova I. A., Shubravy O. I., Uteshev V. K., Agasian A. L., Goncharov B. F. Keeping, captive breeding and creation of new populations of eastern spadefoot (Pelobates syriacus Boettger). In: Zooculture of Amphibians. Moscow, Institut evolyucionnoy morfologii i ekologii zhivotnyh AN SSSR Publ., 1990 b, pp. 82–89 (in Russian).
Uteshev V. K., Kaurova S. A., Shishova N. V., Manokhin A. A., Melnikova E. G., Gakhova E. N. Cur-rent technologies of amphibian breeding. Proceeding of Ukrainian Herpetological Society, 2013 a, no. 4, 175–183 (in Russian).
Uteshev V. K., Kidov A. A., Kaurova S. A., Shishova N. V. First experience of reproduction of the Karelin’s newt, Triturus karelinii (Strauch, 1870) with urinal sperm use for eggs fertilization. Bulletin of Tambov University, Ser. of Natural and Technical Sciences, 2013 b, vol. 18, no. 6-1, pp. 3090–3092 (in Russian).
Uteshev V. K., Kidov A. A., Kaurova S. A., Shishova N. V., Kovalev A. V. Comparative characteristic of urinal sperm of three species of palearctic brown frogs. Bulletin of Tambov University, Ser. of Natural and Technical Sciences, 2013 c, vol. 18, no. 6-1, pp. 3087–3090 (in Russian).
Ananjeva N. B., Orlov N. L., Uteshev V. K., Gak-hova E. N. Strategies for conservation of endangered amphibian and reptile species. Biology Bulletin, 2015, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 432–439.
Ananjeva N. B., Uteshev V. K., Orlov N. L., Ry-abov S. A., Gakhova E. N., Kaurova S. A., Kramarova L. I., Shishova N. V., Browne R. K. Comparison of the modern reproductive technologies for amphibians and reptiles. Russian J. of Herpetology, 2017, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 275–290.
Arntzen J. W., King T. M., Denoël M., Martínez-Solano I., Wallis G. P. Provenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Herpetological J., 2016, vol. 26, pp. 49–56.
Bell B. D., Bell A. P. Distribution of the introdu-ced alpine newt Triturus alpestris and of native Triturus species in north Shropshire, England. Australian J. of Ecology, 1995, vol. 20, pp. 367–375.
Dubois A., Raffaëlli J. A new ergotaxonomy of the family Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 (Amphibia, Urodela). Alytes, 2009, vol. 26, pp. 1–85.
Goncharov B. F., Shubravy O. I., Serbinova I. A., Uteshev V. K. The USSR programme for breeding amphibians, including rare and endangered species. Internernational Zoo Yearbook, 1989, vol. 28, pp. 10–21.
Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Uteshev V. K., Timoshina A. L., Kovrina E. G. The first captive breeding of the Eichwald’s toad (Bufo eichwaldi). Russian J. of Herpetology, 2014, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 40–46.
Kinne OSuccessful re-introduction of the newts Triturus cristatus and T. vulgaris. Endangered Species Research, 2006, vol. 1, pp. 25–40.
Raffaëlli J. Les Urodèles du Monde. Deuxième Édition. Plumelec, Penclen, 2013. 480 p.
Shishova N. R., Uteshev V. K., Kaurova S. A., Browne R. K., Gakhova E. N. Cryopreservation of hormonally induced sperm for the conservation of threatened amphibians with Rana temporaria as a model research species. Theriogenology, 2011, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 220–222.
Shubravy O. I., Uteshev V. K., Serbinova I. A., Goncharov B. F. Über die Tätigkeit einer Arbeitsgruppe zur Vermehrung seltener, vom Aussterben bedrohter und problematischer Amphibienarten in Menschenhand (Vortragsmanuskript). Amphibienforschung und Vivarium, 1991, pp. 20–21.

Short text (in English): 
Full text (in Russian): 
Номер страницы (по): 
39.00