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AGE AND GROWTH OF THE EICHWALD’S TOAD (BUFO EICHWALDI LITVINCHUK, BORKIN, SKORINOV ET ROSANOV, 2008) IN THE LENKORAN LOWLAND (SOUTHEASTERN AZERBAIJAN)

Data on the age and growth of the Talysh toad in the Lenkoran Lowland are provided from sceletochronological analysis. Females are larger than males by body size. The reproductive part of the population is mainly composed by animals aged 3 - 6 years. The maximum age of females and males in the studied group was 9 and 8 years, respectively. Males and females reach their sexual maturity after 1 - 2 and 3 winters, respectively.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE «EASTERN» AND «WESTERN» FORMS OF THE MARSH FROG, PELOPHYLAX RIDIBUNDUS, AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE ORIGIN OF HEMICLONAL HYBRIDS, P. ESCULENTUS IN MARI EL REPUBLIC

Molecular-genetic analysis of green frogs (67 individuals of Pelophylax ridibundus and 63 ones of hybridogenic P. esculentus) from Mari El Republic (15 localities) and the Kirov Region (one locality) was performed by two (mitochondrial and nuclear) markers. Some part of the material (66 individuals) was studied by means of DNA flow cytometry. It is shown that in the green frogs living in the northern Middle Volga region, the genetic markers specific for the «western» (the Central European P. ridibundus) form are predominant.

MATERIALS ON THE DISTRIBUTION, BIOTOPICAL AND VERTICAL PLACEMENT OF THE SAND LIZARD (LACERTA AGILIS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN ITS SOUTHEAST HABITAT

Data on the spread of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) in the southeast area of its habitat, in the adjacent parts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and China have been generalized. Cadastral maps with the exact location of 217 occurrences have been compiled. The habitat boundary of the sand lizard in the Southern Balkhash region has been refined. The mountains in the east and southeast of Kazakhstan are an important focus of L. agilis in the country. The maximum limit of the vertical distribution of the species (2,084 m above the sea level) was recorded in the Central Tien Shan.

CASES OF INCOMPLETE AUTOTOMY AND TAIL REGENERATION ABNORMALITY OF THE STEPPE-RUNNER (EREMIAS ARGUTA (PALLAS, 1773)) AND SAND LIZARD (LACERTA AGILIS LINNAEUS, 1758) IN THE VOLGOGRAD REGION

The tail regeneration frequency in 55 lizards from the Volgograd region was analyzed, among which were 12 steppe-runners (Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773)) and 43 sand lizards (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758). The following cases of tail regenerates were observed: 0) a normal tail; 1) regeneration in the distal third; 2) a tail regenerated from the middle part; and 3) autotomy near the base (the proximal third). The majority of the lizards had normal tails (60.0% of E. arguta and 83.2/57.1% of L. agilis in females/males).

SIZE-WEIGHT AND SEXUAL STRUCTURE OF PELOPHILAX RIDIBUNDUS AND BOMBINA BOMBINA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA) POPULATIONS IN THE FLOODPLANE OF THE MEDVEDITSA RIVER (SARATOV REGION)

The size, weight and sexual structure of Pelophylax ridibundus and Bombina bombina populations was analyzed during their spawning migrations in 2013 - 2015 in four lakes of the Medveditsa River flood-plane (Saratov Region, Lysogorsky District). The body length of Pelophylax ridibundus males ranged from 29.3 to 101.3 mm (the weight from 2.10 to 152.2 g), and that of females did from 36.1 to 120.2 mm (the weight from 4.45 to 181.0 g); for Bombina bombina males - from 25.4 to 50.6 mm (the weight from 1.06 to 8.5 g), and that of females from 32.1 to 49.7 mm (the weight from 2.64 to 8.43 g).

DEVELOPMENT OF URBANIZED AREAS AND HERPETOFAUNA CONSERVATION PROSPECTS (ON AN EXAMPLE OF KAZAN CITY)

During the field season of 2014, research was conducted on 5 areas planned for organizing protected areas in Kazan City. The examined areas were found to be important for preserving the diversity of amphibians and reptiles in the city. Of major concern is preservation of the northern crested newt (Triturus cristatus Laurenti, 1768) and the common toad (Bufo bufo, Linnaeus, 1758) in those territories, the species listed in The Red Data Book of the Republic of Tatarstan.

PHOLIDOSIS VARIATIONS OF THE SAND LIZARD LACERTA AGILIS (LINNAEUS, 1758) AND COMMON LIZARD ZOOTOCA VIVIPARA (LICHTENSTEIN, 1823) FROM THE WESTERN PART OF THE TATARSTAN REPUBLIC

The paper considers qualitative and quantitative characteristics of pholidosis variations in two lizard species, comparative analysis of these indices at both intraspecific and interspecific level is carried out. 45 and 19 types of deviations were observed in the sand lizard and common lizard respectively. Variations of the labial, supraocular and supraciliar, frontonasal, parietal, occipital and ventral scales are more common in both species. The sand lizards from the Spassky region differ from the others by some indices.

LABORATORY REPRODUCTION OF THE CUBAN TOAD, PELTOPHRYNE EMPUSA COPE, 1862

The paper presents data on reproduction of the Cuban toad, Peltophryne empusa in laboratory conditions. Spawning was stimulated by surfagon injection. The start of spawning was observed at a temperature of 27.0 - 27.5°C in the early morning after 10 - 12 h after the hormonal injection. The female fertility ranged from 2,415 to 7,343 eggs. Incubation lasted 12 - 24 h. The total embryogenesis duration from egg laying to the start of exogenous feeding of larvae was about 2 days. The larval development of the Cuban toad lasted from 27 to 64 days.

FEATURES OF POST-WILDFIRE RECOVERY OF FOREST HERPETOCOMPLEXES AS A CONSEQUENCE OF PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE TERRITORY (ON AN EXAMPLE OF THE KERZHENSKY NATURE RESERVE)

Field research was conducted on the Kerzhensky Nature Reserve territory (the Nizhny Novgorod region, Russia) in 2012-2013 to analyze the influence of the 2010 forest wildfires on the populations of amphibians and reptiles and to reveal features of their post-wildfire recovery. The recovery of the herpetocomplexes on the territories subjected to surface/crawling and controlled fires was found to occur during no more than two years, whereas crown/canopy fires with complete vegetation destruction required three years for recovery.

COMPARATIVE DATA ON THE LEUKOCYTIC BLOOD FORMULA OF VIPERA BERUS AND VIPERA RENARDI

The leukocytic formulae of the peripheral blood of Vipera berus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Samara region (Samara City) and Vipera renardi (Christoph, 1861) from the Saratov region (Khvalynsk district) were studied. Some features of the leukocytic blood composition of the species studied were revealed, manifested by the predominance of a specific component in the immune reactions of Vipera berus, in comparison with Vipera renardi.

PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE MOLECULAR GENETIC STRUCTURE OF PELOPHYLAX RIDIBUNDUS (AMPHIBIA: ANURA: RANIDAE) FROM THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA, BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR DNA ANALYSIS

Molecular genetic analysis of 28 marsh frogs Pelophylax ridibundus complex from 12 localities of the Crimean peninsula was conducted by two molecular markers, namely, COI, the gene of the first subunit of cytochromeoxydase mtDNA, and SAI-1, the first intron of the serum albumin gene nDNA. It has been found that the mtDNA type specific for the “eastern” form (the Anatolian P. cf. bedriagae) prevails for the Crimean marsh frogs, while the mtDNA type of the “western” form (the Central-European P.

ANNONATED LIST OF AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE SPECIES OF THE FAR EAST RUSSIA

An annotated list of amphibian and reptile species of the Russian Far East is presented with due account of modern data on the taxa systematics. 13 Amphibian species and 27 reptile ones have been reliably registered by now, including several random sea species.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN TORTOISE AGRIONEMYS HORSFIELDII (GRAY, 1844) IN UZBEKISTAN (RANGE, REGIONAL AND LANRSCAPE DISTRIBUTION, POPULATIONS DENSITY)

The Central Asian tortoise distribution in Uzbekistan is described on the basis of our analysis of findings at 287 localities. All these localities with their locations have been mapped. The history of the propagation and formation of the habitat of the species is provided. It has been revealed that the tortoise is widely settled in desert landscapes. The area of its habitat is 67% of the territory of the republic (about 300,000 sq. km). However, the territory with higher population densities (> 10 animals per ha) occupies about 0.6% of this territory.

STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF THE SPAWNING ANURAN TAXOCENOSES IN FLOODPLAIN LAKES OF THE MEDVEDITSA RIVER VALLEY (SARATOV REGION)

The structure of the spawning anuran taxocenoses in five floodplain lakes in the Medveditsa river valley in 2009 - 2016 was analyzed. Degradation of the populations of the three most numerous species and a decreased degree of dominance of the spadefoot toad were established. This degradation strongly affects the species with a longer distance of spawning migrations - the severity of the changes sequentially decreases in the row: Pelophylax ridibundus → Pelobates fuscus → Bombina bombina. The structural parameters in the lakes of Lebyazhye and Koblovo were stable.

INTRODUCTION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN THE CAUCASUS AND CRIMEA: AN OVERVIEW AND SOME ACTUAL DATA

An overview of the cases of introduction (both accidental and intentional) of amphibians and reptiles in the Caucasus and Crimea is provided. The introduction cases are systemized in accordance with the goals and ways of introduction and with regards to the expected scale of the impact and its nature. No negative consequences of the introduction of amphibian and reptile species in the Crimea and Caucasus are currently observed on any of the known examples. No cases of species naturalization, which the “invasion” term can be applied to, have been revealed.

DISTRIBUTION AND REPRODUCTION ECOLOGY OF THE SIBERIAN SALAMANDER (SALAMANDRELLA KEYSERLINGII) IN THE NORTHEAST OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA

Data on the findings of the Siberian salamander over the territory of the European Russian Northeast are summarized. This species is shown to be rare here and to be distributed locally. Three types of spawning reservoirs have been identified, namely: lowland marshes, puddles along the edges of transitional marshes, and roadside ditches. Reproduction begins immediately after snow melting and the appearance of open water. Significant correlation links between the dates of the egg lying onset, average air temperature in April and the dates of snow melting in burs are noted.

REPTILE COMMUNITIES OF THE KARAKALPAKIAN USTYURT (UZBEKISTAN)

Terrestrial route counts of reptiles in 24 localities of the plateau Ustyurt were carried out in 2007 - 2008. 474 individuals of 15 species were found along a total of 243.5 km passed. Based on the results of our survey, the reptile population structure has been clarified in 12 landscapes. The low specific diversity and population density of reptiles were observed everywhere. 2 to 8 species with a population density of 1.9 - 8.4 individuals per ha were found in certain landscapes. In terms of abundance, the reptiles belonged to rare or common species.

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BOMBINA BOMBINA (DISCOGLOSSIDAE, ANURA) IN THE MEDVEDITSA RIVER VALLEY (SARATOV REGION) AND NONINVASIVE SEX DIAGNOSTICS BY SIZE AND WEIGHT TRAITS

Morphometric characteristics of Bombina bombina males and females were done. 10 traits were measured and 10 indices were calculated for a sample of B. bombina from the population of the lake Cherepashie (the Medveditsa river valley, Lysogorsky district, Saratov region). Only some traits show significant sex-ual differences in B. bombina. It is shown that in the conditions of degradation of the spawning reservoir network in river valleys, a significant increase in the role of individuals with relatively large dimensions of their hind limbs (mainly femur) occurred in the B.

DISTRIBUTION AND CONTACT ZONE OF TWO FORMS OF THE GREEN TOAD FROM THE BUFOTES VIRIDIS COMPLEX (ANURA, AMPHIBIA), DIFFERING IN GENOME SIZE, IN THE VOLGA REGION

In the Volga region and adjacent territories, 263 specimens of green toads from 63 localities were studied. Genome size analysis by means of flow DNA cytometry allowed the specimens from 16 localities to be identified as the “western” (= viridis) form and the green toads from 20 localities as the “eastern” form (= variabilis or sitibundus). In the other localities studied, specimens with an intermediate genome size predominated.

HIGH TENSION OF TERRITORIAL RELATIONS AMONG MALES MAY NEGATIVELY INFLUENCE THEIR RELATIONS WITH FEMALES IN THE ROCK LIZARD DAREVSKIA BRAUNERI (SAURIA, LACERTIDAE)

In previous papers we have ascertained the existence of many-year social monogamy in Brauner's lizard (A-relations). The data presented in this communication show that the territorial male’s aggression against the female, including sexual aggression, manifests itself during, or immediately after, a territorial skirmish between the male and the intruder. During an hour after this assault, an increased frequency of rejections of social contacts with the male remained in the assaulted female.

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