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INTRODUCTION OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES IN THE CAUCASUS AND CRIMEA: AN OVERVIEW AND SOME ACTUAL DATA

An overview of the cases of introduction (both accidental and intentional) of amphibians and reptiles in the Caucasus and Crimea is provided. The introduction cases are systemized in accordance with the goals and ways of introduction and with regards to the expected scale of the impact and its nature. No negative consequences of the introduction of amphibian and reptile species in the Crimea and Caucasus are currently observed on any of the known examples. No cases of species naturalization, which the “invasion” term can be applied to, have been revealed.

CURRENT PROBLEMS OF STUDYING THE LATE CENOZOIC HISTORY OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM THE PALEONTOLOGICAL VIEWPOINT

When studying the late Cenozoic history of amphibians and reptiles, a number of problems arise, associated with obtaining and interpretation of factual material. First of all, the author considers peculiarities of obtaining and identifying fossil material, which strongly affects the amount and quality of paleontological data. Most biologists are not familiar with them. These are problems of taphonomy, demand, economy, personnel, collection and systematic problems.